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Posted 07 April 2004 - 14:58



The word Travertine comes from "Tivertino", which is the Roman - Period name of Tivoli in Italy, where there are large travertine sediments. Travertine is a rock that occurs with the sedimentation as the result of the multi-side chemical reaction depending on various reasons and environments.

The geological events that caused the occurrence of Pamukkale thermal source have impacted a large region.

There are 17 hot water areas in the region and their temperatures vary between 35 - 1000C. Pamukkale thermal source is a unit included in the region potential. The source is being used since archaic periods. The thermal water, after leaving the source, comes to the head of the travertine with a 320 m long canal and is deposited to the travertine layers, where there is a partial sedimentation of 60 - 70 meters and takes an average distance of 240 - 300 m.

Calcium carbonate that sediments in the layered pools and graded barriers is in the form of a soft gel at the beginning. It hardens by time and converts into "travertine". But the visitors wandering and playing on the layers cause the crashing and distribution of the soft calcium carbonate and the destruction of the sedimentation balance.


Kırmızısu: It is in Karahayıt Town of Akköy District. It is approximately 5 km north of Pamukkale.

Kırmızısu travertine has occurred around the thermal water at 60 degrees temperature. Due to the metal oxides in the thermal water, red, green and white colored travertine layers occur. Until recent times, Karahayıt thermal springs served to internal tourism, but they have gained importance with the increasing hotel facilities and have taken their place after Pamukkale. Karahayıt red water travertine cover an area of approximately 500 m2. In terms of its natural beauty, it is one of the important tourism locations worth seeing of the province.


Archaic Laodikeia city that is 6 km north of Denizli Province is established at a very suitable point in geographical point of view and in the south of Lykos river. The name of the city is mostly referred to as "Laodikeia" at the side of Lykos" in the archaic references. In accordance with the historian Plinius, Laodikeia has been constructed on the ruins of a village that was first called as Diospolis "City of Zeus" and then as Rhoas. The name Diospolis is the symbol of the importance given to Zeus cult there. The name Rhoas may belong to any of the native Anatolian languages.

In accordance with other archaic sources, the city has been established by Antiokhos 2nd between the years 263 - 261 BC and the name of Antiokhos's wife, Laodike, has been given to the city. Laodikeia is one of the most important and famous cities of Anatolia in the 1st century BC. The big artistic works in the city belong to this period and the gladiator fights have made the city become more important. The Romans have given a special importance to Laodikeia. Famous statesman and preacher Cicerot has come to this city in 50 BC and has dealt with some legal problems of the city. Again at those dates, the Romans have made Laodikeia the center of Kibyra conventus. The Roman Emperor Hadrianus has visited the city in 129 AD and has written letters to Rome from there.

Another evidence showing how good the relations between the City and Rome were is the status, wealth and priviliges that Zenon family had. A man named Polemon from this family has been assigned as a director to Kilikia and Pontus by Antonius.

The inscriptions and coins provide information about the religious life of Laodikeia. Zeus Laodiokos figure seen on many coins belonging to the Empire period is the indication of the importance given to Zeus cult in this city. The information we have in relation with the late periods of Laodikeia is very limited.

A few texts provide information to us about the condition of Laodikeia during the beginning periods. As is the case for other locations, Christianity has affected the Jew community first.

Existence of one of the famous 7 churches of Small Asia in this city shows the importance of Christianity in this city. We don't know the reason why Laodikeia that was established near Goncalı and Eskihisar villages in archaic period was completely left. But, it is not difficult to guess that big earthquakes had a role in this event. A very big earthquake that happened in 194 AD has destroyed the city.

Buildings of Laodikeia

Big Theatre
It is constructed in northeast of the archaic city, in Greek theatre type and in Roman style in compliance with the area. Its scene is completely destroyed and its cavea and orchestra is in good condition. It has a capacity of approximately 20.000 persons.

Small Theatre
It is 300 m northwestern of the Big theatre. It is constructed in Roman style in compliance with the area in Greek type. Its scene is completely destroyed and there are damages in its cavea and orchestra. It has a capacity of approximately 15.000 persons.

Stadium and Gymnasium
It lies in southwestern of the city in east - west direction. The additional buildings and gymnasium are constructed so as to constitute a whole. The length of the stadium constructed in 79 AD is 350 m and its width is 60 m. The building, which is constructed in the form of a amphitheater has 24 - step sitting lines. A big part of it is destroyed. An inscription indicating that the gymnasium has been had constructed in 2nd century AD by proconsul Gargilius Antioius and devoted to Emperor Hadrianus and his wife Sabina.

Monumental Fountain
It is located at the corner of the main street and secondary street of the city. It is made so as to have two sides. It has niches. It has been repaired in Byzantine Period.

Assembly Building
It is in southwest of the city. The monumental building having a rectangular plan lies in east - west direction. The main entrance is at the eastern side. It is constructed with arch and vault system starting from the entrance. The upper parts of the building have been destroyed completely and the bearer elements have been destroyed partially.

Zeus Temple
It is in the eastern part of the street with columns of archaic Laodikeia city and between the small theatre and nymphaeum. But only parts of the ornamental elements can be seen.

It is constructed in the south of the street with columns, near the street. Only a part of the bearer parts is not damaged. Its main entrance is in the western side. In the middle part, eight pillars, four of which are arched and four of which are flat, have been used.


It is 40 km north of Denizli City center. It is established in the east of Yenicekent Town of Buldan District, on the slopes between Büyük Menderes River and the town. It is connected to both Aegean shores and to Inner Anatolia and Mediterranean with Büyük Menderes plain opening towards west.

The city is 30 km to its peer Laodikeia, which is established on Çürüksu Valley in the south of it and 20 km to Hierapolis.

Tripolis is one of the border, trade and agriculture centers providing transportation to Karya and Frigia regions in Lidia region. Its establishment type and city understanding makes it one of the richest cities of the region. Tripolis is estimated to be established in Lidian Period. There are no historical information relating to the Lidian, Persian and Hellenistic Periods, yet. No ruins from these periods are encountered, either. The ruins of the city has Roman and Byzantine Period character in terms of style. Best samples of the monumental buildings are constructed in 1st, 2nd and 3rd centuries AD. In accordance with Plinius, another name of the city is Apollonia. The names of goddess Letho, Letoia Phthia games and Menderes river exist on the coins. Tripolis and its surroundings have been the scene for many earthquakes and wars in the history. The name of Tripolis being called in the list of Lidian Bishops list show that it was a city in bishopship level.

Buildings of Tripolis

It is in the city center. It is constructed as a Greek theatre in Roman style in compliance with the land. All of its parts are destroyed. It has a capacity of approximately 10.000 persons.

It is approximately 200 m west of the theatre. It is outside the city walls. Its external walls are partially strong. The vaulted and arched internal parts are destroyed. Its parts can be determined. There are great niches in the thick walls.

City Building
It is approximately 150 m south of the bath. Only the base of it exists.

Fort and City Walls
Tripolis has been surrounded with city walls and fort in Late Roman and Byzantine Periods. The walls of the city, which is established on a sloped land, are supported with towers, watch towers and thick walls. The wall continuing next to the theatre combines with the tower at the highest hill in the north of the city. The tower is aimed for both defense and watching the approaching enemy danger.

It is on the eastern and southern slopes of the wall. Here, there are rock graves, podium - graves and sarcophaguses.


It is 25 km east of Denizli Province, in 2 km north of Honaz District.

The highway going to Honaz from Organized Industrial Region that is at the 16th km of Denizli - Ankara Highway passes through Colossae city.

The archaic city is established in the north of Honaz (Kadmos) mountain, on the shore of Aksu Brook. It is on the southern east way that is used since Archaic Period. It is one of the most important centers in Big Frigia. In accordance with Ksenophon, it is one of the 6 big cities of Frigia.

It has lived its bright eras under Persian sovereignty. Beginning from the 2nd century BC, it has lost its importance with the establishment of Heirapolis and Laodikeia. At the beginning of 1st century AD, wool and weaving industry has developed too much with Laodikeia. It has been destroyed with the earthquake that happened in 1st century AD in Neron Period.

In Late Roman period, Hierapolis and Laodikeia have become villages due to migration.

It has been completely left in 692 - 787 AD, because of the city established with the name Chonae at the location where today's Honaz District center is located. We learn from the ancient sources that St. Michael church existed in Chonae city.

But there are no ruins today. There is a fort ruin belonging to the Ottoman Period on the hill.

The ruins of Colossae archaic city are encountered in the lands at the ruin place top that was acropolis and its surroundings. There are room and house type graves engraved in the rock in the region in the south of the ruin place.


The archaic city is in the area where Işıklı Town is located on Çivril - Dinar highway. The city has been established in the name of Eumenes the 2nd, king of Bergama. Traces of archaic period are seen near the water spring that is in southeast of Işıklı Town. The plain over the mountain region, which is named as "Sarıbaba Tepesi" today has been used as a fort especially during the Byzantine Period. Eumeneia's necropolis is located on the slopes of this hill.


The city is in the borders of Vakıf village that is 10 km northwest of Tavas District. Residence is intense in the region surrounded with the water in the north. Herakleia Salbake is located at the skirts of Babadağ mountain range separating the Caria and Phrygia regions indicated in archaic geography and looking to the current Tavas Plain. It is known as Caria city. Heraklia and Aphrodisias are separated by Tmelos (Kırkpınar) Brook as a natural border.

The river god of both cities is Tmelos. Heraklia is close to and peer of the cities Aphrodisias in its west, Apollonia and Tabai in its south and Sebastopolis and Kidrama in its southeast. No information could be obtained from the archaic sources about the first establishment of the city. The important buildings of the city are Roman Period city wall surrounding the city and the stadium.

It is between the wall surrounding the archaic city and the current Vakıf Village. Some steps belonging to the stadium in East - West direction can be seen on the slopes. The steps in the western side are completely destroyed.

Heraklia Hieron
It is 4 km east of Herakleia Salbake archaic city and 1 km northeastern of the current Tavas - Kızılcabölük town, at the location called as Ören Sırtı and Kocapınar location. Hieron, which is located on the slope of Salbakos (Babadağ) has the form of a rectangular prism. Its four sides are surrounded with relief consisting of plates. Here, mythological scenes relating to Artemis, Apollon, Pan, Dionysos and Herakles are shown.


Attuda (Hisarköy) is located in Denizli Province, Sarayköy District and at 17 km southwestern of the district.

In Archaic Period, it is a border city between Caria and Phrygia. The shortest way connecting Tripolis and Laodikeia in Çürüksu Valley to Aphrodisias passes through Attuda. Although there is no precise information relating to the first establishment of the city, it is estimated to be the peer of the cities established in Lykos Valley and to be established in the Hellenistic Period. It has had an important role in establishing the commercial, economic and artistic connection between the cities in Lykos Valley and Aphrodisias.

It is seen that the city established on a high hill surrounded by two brooks coming from the east and west has given importance to defense and kept the transportation road under control. In archaic sources, it is written that Men cult was existent in Attuda, that a temple was constructed in the name of this god and that there was a sculpture of god Men on horse in this temple. Furthermore, archaic sources indicate that Zeus, Apollon, Dionysos and Asklepios sculptures and Artemis Anaitis cult were existent in Attuda. In these sources, it is mentioned that a special importance was given to goddess Kybele in the temple belonging to Men Karou and Men Arrastos.

In the archaic city, coins have been pressed in the pre - empire and post - empire period. On one side of the coin, Attuda inscription and on the other side of the coin the portraits of gods and directors are shown.

Today, Hisarköy is located on the area where the archaic city was located, therefore, it is not possible to see any ruins on the surface. Some works belonging to Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods are exhibited in the museum depot.


Apollonia archaic city and Medet Tumulus is in the residence area of Medet Village established on a plain that is 7 km west of Tavas District of Denizli Province.

Apollonia, which is established on the most efficient lands of Tavas Plain is one of the archaic cities that has transportation to Karia region in the west through Tabai way, to Likia region in the south through Sebastopolis way, to Phrygia region in the east through Tavas way. Although there are no precise documents relating to the establishment of Apollonia archaic city, when the tumulus findings are examined, it is seen that residence goes back to the Bronze Era and has continued without interruption.

It is understood that the city has taken the name "Apollonia" in Hellenistic Period and has lived its most magnificent time in the Roman Period. In the courtyard, where the village mosque is located, the bases and inscriptions of Apollon temple belonging to Hadrianus Period exist. We see that the city has pressed coins in its own name between 1st century BC and 1st century AD and that there are godly motifs on those coins.


Tabai, which is located at the 78th km of Denizli - Muğla highway, has the appearance of a natural fort as can be understood from its name. The city is among the city states established in Anatolia after the Great Alexander. Tabai has been subject to an uninterrupted residence since Hellenistic Period until today (Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman). Tabai has pressed coins in its own name in archaic period. The fronts sides of the coins, which were pressed first from silver and then from bronze, have Zeus, Apollon, Athena, Herakles and Dionysos figures and their back sides have the inscription "TABENON" and figures such as the bull representing the city or abundance horn. The ruins that could survive until today are the Roman Bath and Cevherpaşa Mosque belonging to the Ottoman period.


Dionysopolis city, which is near Ortaköy Town that is 8 km northwestern of Çal District of Denizli Province, has been established in "Seleukos" period of Syrian kingdom and then gone under the sovereignty of Bergama Kingdom. The ruins seen on the surface today are not so much.

Apollon Lermenos Temple
It is 4 km to Bahadınlar Village. The temple, which is in the middle of the hill longing to Menderes Valley has a rectangular plan. The bases of the building belong to Hellenistic Period and the upper parts of the building belong to the Roman period.

The temple is understood to have peripteros plan from a series of column bases. A part of the portico in the west of the temple is undamaged. From the inscription found in the Mosque of Bahadınlar Village, it is understood that the portico has been constructed in Domitianus period by the slaves of Apollon Lermenos temple and devoted to Apollon. From the inscription on the sculpture bases found in Hieron, it is understood that this location has been a very important cult center. The cult is Apollon Lermenos "Double Axe" cult.


Sebastopolis is 2 km east of Kızılca town that is 19 km south of Tavas District of Denizli Province. Although the first establishment of the archaic city is not known, the ruins on the surface belong to Roman and Byzantine Periods. The ruins are Tumulus Hill, stadium and necropolis.


Trapezopolis is located in Boludüzü location of Bekirler Village of Babadağ District of Denizli Province. The archaic city is understood to be established in accordance with the geographical condition of the land on the plain lying from north towards south. The ruins are completely under soil. The ruins on the surface show the characteristics of Roman and Byzantine periods.


It is in Güney District of Denizli Province. It is estimated to be established on the plains in the north of today's Güney District center. But no ruins are encountered today.


It is near Menteş Village of Çivril District of Denizli province, at a distance of 4 km to the district center. The tumulus lying in East - West direction has a height of 25 m on an area of 13 hectares. The Excavation Team of English Archeology Institute that came in 1954 for looking for Arzawa Kingdom's capital and started excavation works in Beycesultan Tumulus has continued those works until 1959. In these excavations, many marble, bronze, bone and ceramic works belonging to the Late Calcolithic, First and Mid Bronze Eras have been found. A very small part of the findings that have been found in Beycesultan Tumulus excavation are being exhibited in Anatolian Civilizations Museum and a big part of them are exhibited in Hierapolis Archeology Museum.


The khan that is at 7th km of Denizli - Afyon highway is at the end of the road, just in the entrance of the village having the same name. Akhan, which is one of the latest caravansaries of the Anatolian Seljuks in the west complies with the Sultan khans scheme, but it is a very small khan.

The khan has two inscriptions. Its closed part has been completed in 1253 (651 in Islamic calendar) and the courtyard has been completed in 1254 (652 in Islamic calendar). The person who has had the caravansary constructed is the Governor Seyfettin Karasungur Bin Abdullah. The caravansary, which does not show a symmetrical plan, consists of open and closed parts. It is constructed on a total area of 1100 m2 and consists of a square courtyard and a deepening rectangular hall. The closed location has been divided into three parts with two rows of pillars. The mid part is larger and higher than the side parts. The upper part is closed with a vault. Its portal having a sharp arch and a niche shape has gone a half meters outside with its low arched entrance door.

In spite of the symmetrical arrangement of the closed location, we meet an asymmetric plan in the courtyard. Although there are double - floored locations, a liwan and two closed units in the division on the right of the courtyard entrance, there are porches and two vaulted locations on the corner just near the closed location on the other side. The courtyard portal of the khan is very magnificent with its geometric and plastic ornaments.


In accordance with the seven - line inscription on the portal of this khan, which is located in Çardak District center of Denizli Province, at the end of Denizli - Afyon highway, it has been constructed by Esededdin Ayaz Bin Abdullah el Şahabi, who was a slave of Alaaddin Keykubat set free by him and who was one of his emirs, at the time of Alaaddin Keykubat. It has been completed in Ramadan of 1230 (627 in accordance with Islamic Calendar) and has been constructed as "Ribat" in accordance with its inscription. The khan, which has been constructed in west - east direction forms a simplified similar of sultan khans with its very large, square courtyard and six divisions, its hall consisting of five parts. The closed part is in west - east axis and has a rectangular plan. By using five pillars in each row in four rows, five parts have been formed. The mid part that is on the door axis is larger than the side parts. The vault of this part is higher than the vaults of the other parts. The ornamental elements of the hall consist of the relieves on the pillar caps of the mid part. Bull head, double fish and human head motifs are seen on these ornaments, which are collected.

A small part of the body walls of the courtyard are not damaged. No traces of the liwan and entrance portal that should exist here are left. The portal of the hall projecting outwards from the body walls surrounded with borders consisting of geometric motifs forms a simple composition. There is one lion figure on both sides of the inscription and this type of composition is often seen in Seljuk khans. There are quadruple node motifs occurring as the result of the intersection of octagonals having broken sides on the portal border. From the sources, we learn that the khan was called as "HANABAT" during the period when it belonged to Dinar district and was used as a grain silo during the Independence War.


Although no inscriptions indicating the date of the mosque that is 300 m to the town near Çivril - Emirhisar road have been met, it is understood that this mosque belongs to 13th century Rulers period from its plan and material characteristics. The mosque has a single dome plan. As construction material, collected materials belonging to the Roman period have been used abundantly. In the mosque, the only thing that can be seen as ornament is the palmet lines on the dome arches. The conical hat of the minaret that is on north - east corner of the mosque does not exist today. There are large cracks on its body. The tomb is a single - location building that is approximately 5 m to the mosque. There are four graves, the owners of which are not known, in this tomb. This building group is important both in reflecting the architecture of 13th century Rulers period and in reflecting two cultures with the collected materials in its body.


In accordance with the inscription on its entrance door, the mosque has had constructed by a person named Hacı Ömer Efendi in 1801. The mosque, having a rectangular shape, is divided into three parts in niche axis via ten wooden columns, six of which are independent. The mosque reminds the 13th century Seljuk mosques having wooden pillars with its architectural and ornamental characteristics. The walls of the mosque, which shows a rich and varying condition in terms of its ornaments, are ornamented with pictures in the form of the three - row panels. In these pictures, where perspective is tried, miniature style makes us feel its heaviness. It is observed that ostentation is avoided and a more airy atmosphere is tried to be created in these pictures. Especially mosque, nature-morte, plant and tree motifs are used in these pictures. Furthermore, the ceiling of the mosque is divided into small squares with laths and these squares are ornamented with plant motifs distributed with certain intervals.


The mosque, which is 5 km to Çivril District, has had constructed by a person named "Ömer Ağa" in 1882 in accordance with the inscription on its entrance door. The worship location of the two - location mosque is divided into three parts in deepening direction. The rectangular - plan last community place and its outside show a very simple architectural style. On the contrary to this simple appearance on the outside, the walls of the last community place draw attention with a rich ornament. The surfaces of the walls are indicated with sharp arches and various compositions are placed in these arches. Stylized plant motifs, mosque motif and fruit motifs are among the picture samples that can be seen. It is one of the samples that could survive in this city among the mosques having walls with pictures, which has become a fashion in 18th and 19th century Ottoman architecture and especially in Anatolia.


Güney Waterfall is in the borders of Denizli Province, Güney District, Cindere Village. It is near Menderes River passing from 4 km south of Güney District. The Waterfall is one of the locations worth seeing in terms of its natural beauty.


It is on the plateau of Buldan District of Denizli Province. It is surrounded with forests. It is one of the places worth seeing in terms of its natural beauty.


One of the places that can be visited in Denizli center is the old bazaar called with the name Kaleiçi. It is surrounded with city walls that are approximately 800 meters long and 1 m thick. The construction date of the city walls are known to be in the Byzantine period before the Turks' coming to Anatolia. The residence in Kaleiçi is known to begin in 11th century after Laodikeia's, which is 5 km to this location, being left.


There is no precise information relating to the construction date of the building that is in Uçancıbaşı Quarter of the center of our city and that is used as museum today. But, it is understood from the folkloric information that is has had constructed by Kimon Vandazoflus who is originally Greek but passed to Turkish nationality. The building has been constructed in two floor and consists of rooms opening to the mid sofa in both floors. The sofa of the upper floor longing from one side to the other is opened with a balcony that mobilizes this side. The back side opens to the part that heightens along the two floors and that is understood to be added later.

The main walls are made of stone and the intermediate walls are made with wood skeleton technique. Entrance to the building is provided with double - wing wooden doors having the same characteristics. The windows are rectangular and low arched. The windows having bolted frames are protected with shutters opening to both sides. The upper part is a cover - mixed roof and is covered with Marsilia - type roofing tile. The plasters on the upper edges of the base floor walls and the grooved and Meander ornamented decorative corner pillars are the only ornaments. In the upper floor of the building ethnographic cultural assets are being exhibited.

Furthermore, the house, where Atatürk stayed when he came to Denizli, has been converted into a museum. Here, the wardrobe, brass - capped bed, divan and baroque - style work table are being exhibited. One of the rooms is furnished in accordance with the traditions of Denizli region.

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