THE AMASYA MUSEUM
In 1925 to begin with a "Museum Store" was formed combining combination of a part of Sultan Beyazıd II's Complex(two rooms of the school) and few archaeological artefacts and Islamic Period mummies.
Then, when the number of artefacts increased and the new locations were needed for their exhibition, in 1962 the museum was moved to Gökmedrese Mosque dating from 1266, one of works of art of the Seljuk Period. Until 1958 the museum was managed through voluntary official servants and was converted into a Museum Directorate in June of the same year.
The museum was moved into the present building on March 22, 1977; and then the museum was rearranged and all artefacts were exhibited in their chronological order and opened for service in 1980.
With about twenty four thousand works of art consisting archaeological and ethnographical artefacts, coins, seals, manuscripts and mummies of 11 individual civilisations, the museum is the most modern and the richest one in the region, and has been serving the culture and tourism of our country.
The museum building is a three-storey building, and it has a storage section, laboratory and other service units in the basement floor, and has kiosk and a resting hall and a small exhibition hall on the first floor and on the upper storey, it has two large exhibition halls where archaeological, numismatic and ethnographical artefacts are exhibited. In the garden there are 6 mummies of the Ilhanlı Period within Sultan Mesut I Tomb and works of fine masonry.
Exhibition of First Floor
They are made of earthenware, with two handles, sharp bottoms, dating from the Roman and Byzantine Periods. They were used in the transportation and storage of wine, olive oil and similar liquids during Antiquity. The works of art known to be found from a sunk ship near Bafra were granted to the museum in 1977.
There are four tombs in this section. Three were made of earthenware, and the other was made of bronze.
Made in hammering technique, and in the shape of a modern bathtub. There are four symmetrical ring handles on the corners near opening edges. It was excavated from a big tumulus called Çakırmıstığın tepesi in Esençay of Taşova District and is an artefact of the Hellenistic period.
One of them is cornered, the other is cylindirical and the last one is in shape of a bathtub. They were used as tombs during the Roman Period.
There are two sculptures exhibited here, dating from Hellenistic and Roman Period. One is the priest sculpture without head in clothes, and the other represents Dionysos and his son on relief.
In the section where tombs are exhibited, original marble inscriptions of mosques, madrassas and similar buildings built in Amasya during the Ottoman Empire Period are on exhibition.
The carpets, carpet seccade, carpet bags and rugs brought by the immigrants from Azerbaijan and the surrounding of Amasya during the 1897-1898 Ottoman-Russia War are exhibited here. Also Milas, Kırşehir and Avanos carpets and rugs are exhibited here.
Wooden Works of Art
In this section, magnificent samples of wooden carpentry artefacts of Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman origin are exhibited.
Door panel from Byzantine Period
It is from Gümüş Town of Gümüşhacıköy District. It has branches of vine symbolising the fertility made through embossing technique coinciding with vine leaf in circle shapes and big grape bunches. An artefact from the late Byzantine Period.
Door from Seljuk Period
The original door of Gökmedrese was built between 1266-1267 during the Seljuk Period. Made of Abanose wood, it has two panels and a is monumental work of art. It has carved decorations, roman type and curved branched round vault, and within the border, on the forehead section, the saying of Muhammad in Arabic meaning "in the other world human beings are asked their good works and the knowledge they taught the world or their off-springs thanking and praying for them." On the center of the door there is a triangle, pentagon and hexagon formed by means of coincidence of broken lines decorated with curved branch motives.
Mosque Door from Ottoman Empire Period
The original door of Mehmet Paşa Mosque dated 1485, Ottoman Empire Period. A two panel door with pentagons formed through coincidence of broken lines and decorated with star motives. Is one of the rare sample of Ottoman wooden carpentry. This section has closet covers and cleaning parts collected from samples of civil architecture samples of Amasya in 19th century.
Second Floor Exhibition
The storey is divided into two halves, namely the archaeological and ethnographical sections. At the end of the archaeological section there are closets where coins and jewellry are exhibited.
Works of Art from Bronze Age ( B.C. 3500-2100)
The works representing this age in the museum are exhibited in three separate windows. In the first one, black and red colored, finely gilded and some having groove metal imitations, with and without handles spherical, round mouthed, flat bottom, pottery and jugs are exhibited. All of the works of art excavated from Mahmatlar and Merzifon Oymaağaç Village of Amasya center are handmade artefacts.
Other windows have bronze knives, axes, bone needles and stamps.
Hittite Age (B.C. 1750-1200)
They are exhibited in two windows.
In the first one, there are filters with beak mouthed, camel feature coloured earthenware jugs, pottery, bowls and an earthenware temple.
In the second one; bronze and stone seals, earthenware bull heads, human figures, idols and various type earthenware ritons and three sacred containers are exhibited.
Hittite God Sculpture
In Archaeological literature the "Amasya Sculpture" or " Hittite Storm God Teashop" art is one of the unique works of art in the world.
It was found accidentally in a tumulus in Doğantepe Town of Amasya centre. Made of bronze, casting technique, but arms, legs and some parts have not been found yet.
God figures seen in Hittite Empire Period embossing artefacts are similar to embossing of gods discovered in Yazılıkaya open temple in Boğazköy(Hattuşaş).
The current height of the artefact with sharp hat, short skirt, in a stepping forward posture, is about 21,5 cm, and its weight is 1.340 kg.
Among other metal sculptures dating to Hittite Empire Period(1400-1200 B.C.) is the biggest human sculpture. Thick eye brows, hollow eyes, smooth grooved lines make it look moderate, as well as giving it a strong and serious expression.
Urartu Period (B.C. 900-600)
The artefacts of the civilisation in the Van region of Eastern Anatolia were obtained through purchase. Bronze bracelets with stylized lion heads, bronze containers and one boiler handle are exhibited.
Frygian Period (B.C. 850-600)
Frygians migrating to Anatolia upon the immigration of clans around B.C. 1200 ruled the regions which previously had been ruled by the Hittites. Their capital city was Gordion near Ankara. The works of art, namely ritons with camel feature clay, plant mouthed, large bodied single handled flat bottom, cream primed in parallel to body lines are exhibited.
Iskit Period (B.C. 6th century)
These are the works of art discovered from excavation carried out in Imirler Village, Gümüşhacıköy district in 1970.
One folded sword belonging to an Iskit warrior found in a tomb has a handle made of bronze, many arrow heads formed like willow leaves, horse riding sets and one embossed and one bronze medium size bell are exhibited.
Hellenistic Period (B.C. 330-29)
The artefacts of this period on exhibition in the museum contain plates made of earthenware, flat bottom, light brick coloured clay, having double and single handles, jugs, and a large plate.
There is an artefact here made of eartyhenware, a curved body, round ring pedestal, double handled, body divided with metaphase, and interior decorated with a duck on a brown background. Also a jug processed with red figure technique having swan figure, made of earthenware is also exhibited.
Roman Period (B.C. 29-A.D. 476)
The artefacts of this age constitute the richest collection of the museum. They are exhibited in five separate windows.
Most of them are tear bottles, odour containers and bowls having thin long forms. Also an artefact dating from B.C. 7th century made with black, blue and brown colour technique, with double handles, yellow body, amphorae of the round mouth, short neck type are also exhibited.
Double and single handled jugs are in different forms. They are generally light brick coloured and painted with red. There are decorations on bodies and handles of some. Also there are bowls similar to each other having large shapes.
Made of earthenware, only having face lines, with mouth in shape of a singing person.
Most of jewellery made of gold, silver and glass are rings and ear-rings. The stones of akik stone rings have human and animal figures.
The ear-rings have different shapes. Some have valuable stones on the hanging parts. Besides, bracelets made of colourful glasses and diadems made of gold are exhibited.
The Necklace consisting of rows of double headed bird figures was obtained in 1988 together with the double ear-rings and the Roman Period ring.
They are single handled, without handles and boiler handled. Made with hammering technique for daily use. They were generally left in children tombs, are gifts for the dead. Particularly bull and eagle sculptures and snake figures are important artefacts.
Were used as lighting means during Hellenistic and Roman Times. Made of eartheware and in various heights and types, and generally in brick colour clay.
Most coins exhibited at the end of the archaeological section are Hellenistic, Roman bronze coins and Byzantine Period copper, Seljuk Period silver and golden coins of the Ottoman Empire, and are exhibited in chronological order.
In the last two windows, hoards are exhibited. One of the windows has a bronze treasure of the Hellenistic Period and 1134 bronze coins minted in nine types during reign of Costantine the Great of the Roman Empire (A.D. 306-337) in Istanbul and Antakya. And the copper hoard belonging to Byzantine Period and the copper hoard of the Seljuk Period are exhibited.
In other windows are coins of Middle Age dukes, of the Ottoman and Ilhanlı Periods, in silver.
Byzantine Period (A.D. 476-1453)
The artefacts of this period are exhibited in the last window of the archaeological section. There are single handle cream coloured jugs, candles made of bronze, jewellery, communion wafer stamps, steel stamps and three earthenware plates obtained in 1992.
The works of art are in the form of brick coloured clay, large mouthed, concave bodied, round ring form. Inner and outer surfaces are yellow, and there are animal figures on the centers. On interior edges there are geometrical stars and calligraphic decorations (A.D. 12-13th century).
Section of Ethnographical Arts
The artefacts of this section are exhibited according to their types. On south side of the hall, agricultural tools and accessories, yarn twisting and weaving tools are exhibited.
The artefacts exhibited here are:
Spouts, containers, buckets, bowls and pans made of copper reflecting the taste of the 19th century decorated with carvings, made for daily use, are exhibited.
Women Jewellery Artefacts
Accessories, jewellers, bracelets, necklaces, rings, head caps, silver knitted bags and belts reflecting ottoman empire women's fashion made of silver, bafum and valuable stones are exhibited.
The cases showing rarely seen workmanship applied on wood during the Ottoman Empire Period, reddening case, and spoons are exhibited, and "Souvenires of Victory" where portraits of Atatürk and his friends during the National Independence War are exhibited.
The weapons of the Ottoman Empire from early to late period are exhibited in three different windows. Arrows, bows, knives, swords, fighting knives, axes, and sticks, golden rifles, pistols, metal cartridges, and steel moulds are included in the collection.
A bowl made in sigrafitto technique from the Seljuk Period, with an angel figure and glazed. Blue white coloured Kütahya, Iznik, Çanakkale ceramics and jugs dating from the 17th-19th centuries of the Ottoman Empire are exhibited.
The artefacts brought from the Beyazıt II Complex were used for the arrangement of azan times (call to ritual prayer) and astronomy education, are made of wood, kiblenumas, compass, land measuring and astromonical instruments are exhibited.
Towel sets and bath wear sets made of velvet and bowls and bath peraphenalia made of silver, dating from the Ottoman Empire Period are exhibited.
There are golden and silver clocks, pocket watches and wooden guards of wall clocks here.
Blue, yellow and red glass and porcelain gas lamps used for lighting during the Ottoman Period are exhibited.
Tea, Coffee and Tobacco Sets
Tea and coffee sets, coffee pans, coffee mills, pan and wooden coffee case, cup guards and semaver used during the Ottoman Empire Period are exhibited together with lighter, tobacco cases and pipes.
In the middle section of the ethnographical museum there are traditional bindalls, night clothes, waistcoats, regional motive wool socks, carpets, carrying bags of Amasya exhibited together with various types and sizes of money bags, glazed bags, neck cloths, scarves and men's belts.
Health Charms, Buhardanlık and Muskas
Here, health and evil eye charms, buhardanlık and clothes with prays keeping the devil away in silver and various sizes with various techniques of processing are exhibited, also candle holders in various sizes.
Here Qur'ans in handwriting, decrees of sultans with their signature, writing sets, ink pen tips and holders, paper scissors and ink pen holders, Qur'an cases and wooden rahles are exhibited.
Flags of the City
At the last section of ethnography, two flags taken from the Sultan Beyazıt III Mosque are exhibited.
Small flags of the city
On one surface of a small flag there is the signature of Sultan Reşit and the Ottoman emblem and on the other side Kelime-i Tevhid is printed.
Great flag of the city
Entire besmele, Ayet-el Kürsi, Fetih(Conquest) part of the Qur'an from the beginning until the 17th sentence are printed on atlas, the middle has Besmele, Mümin Sure of the Qur'an and H.1326. It is known as the "Işkodra Flag".
Open Air Exhibition
In the museum garden located on west side of the museum, large stone monuments of Hittite, Hellenistic, Byzantine, Ilhanlı, Seljuk and Ottoman Periods are exhibited. Hittite Door Lions, Hellenistic and roman inscriptions from Esençay area and Doğantepe and tomb stelles with busts, ionic and corinthian column heads, monumental parts of stuctures, vine leaf decorated tomb inscriptions, tomb steles from the Byzantine Period, embossed tomb inscriptions, construction inscriptions from Byzantine, Seljuk, Ilhanlı Periods, tomb stones in case type with heading and without headings, earthenware storage cubes and original column heads of the Sultan Beyazıt II Mosque demolished during the 1939 earthquake are exhibited here.
In the west part of tomb in the yard the foundations of a construction in Amasya Center Yüzevler Quarter was found. Made of calcer stone and with a dedicatinginscription. This Greek inscription was made by head of state of Pontus and dedicated to Emperor Alexender Severus and his mother of the Roman Empire.
Marble mile stones used as mile stones on the "Ancient Roman road" from Erba, Esençay, Yukarı Beraklı, Yassıçaal(Ebemi) and Zile and extending to various part of Amasya is exhibited. There is the number 21 on the stones found in Uygur town, and they have name of Contantinus II and Diocletianus of Roman Empire and the names of governors. The artefacts are from A.D. 237-305.
There are six mummies of the Ilhanlı Period within the Tomb of Sultan Mesud I in the museum garden. This section recieves the most visitors.
The mummies belong to Şehzade Cumudar, Anatolian Governor, Emiri İşbuğu Nuyin, İzzettin Mehmet Pervane Bey, his wife, son and daughter. They were brought from the Amasya Burmalı Minare and Fethiye Mosque tombs.
There are stone tombs of kings in various parts of Amasya, which are Pontus kings' tombs, according to the historian Strabon from Amasya. The tomb called "Kızlar Sarayı (Girls' Palace)" by Strabon has five stone tombs in monumental style. The royal tombs were made in the locations overlooking the city, and they have remained intact until present time.
Some stone tombs of the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire ending Pontus rule are used as chapels. The stone tombs used for various purposes during the Ottoman and Seljuk Periods are open to pilgrims.
The Royal Tombs on Kızlar palace location and the ones on pilgrimage road to Aynalı Inn f km from the city are different from other royal tombs both in size and shape. They are in inverse U shape in comparison to the stone block where they are located. The others do not have this characteristic. Therefore it can be said that those monumental tombs were of Pontus origin, and the others were made in small sizes and more simply and belong to some wealthy people of the Period(religious people).
HAZERANLAR HOUSE(ETHNOGRAPHY MUSEUM)
It is an example of civil architecture of the 19th century and was made by Hasan Talat Efendi working for Amasya Book Keeping Office. They were expropriated by the Ministry of Culture in 1977 and restoration was started and the works were completed in 1979. In 1984 they were first exhibited and arranged to serve as the "Museum House".
The house is in the style of Safranbolu and Kastamonu houses in terms of architecture. The house is arranged in haremlik and selamlık (for women, respectively men) sections and has two floors above the basement, has a middle sofa, four sitting rooms, cornered rooms; constructed in hımış technique, covered with a cradle roof. There are 11 rooms in the house and they are exhibited and arranged according to the ancient house decoration of Amasya.
The basement of the house has been serving as State Fine Art Gallery Directorate.
The first core of Alpaslan Town Municipality Museum, Taşova district, Amasya was formed from archaeological and ethnographical artefacts collected from the region in 1964. In 1991 a bath from the Ottoman Empire Period was arranged as a museum and in 1994 started to serve as Alpaslan Town Municipality Museum.
There are ceramics, bronze and golden works of art reflecting the Old Bronze, Hittite, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman Periods.
Furthermore, various fossils are exhibited. In regional village room exhibition, there are samples reflecting the carpentry and wood carving of Seljuk and Ottoman Empires Periods.
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THE AMASYA MUSEUM
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